More About Established Empirical Methods


Examples of many empirical methods used to explore values are included in

Fulford, K.W.M., Dickenson, D. and Murray, T.H. (eds) (2002) Healthcare Ethics and Human Values: An Introductory Text with Readings and Case Studies. Malden, USA, and Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

A major resource of narrative accounts covering a wide variety of areas of health care is available on-line from the Oxford Health Experiences Institute at

Empirical methods are also being used increasingly in ethics

Widdershoven, G., McMillan, J., Hope, T., and van der Scheer, L., (2008) (Eds) Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

This book includes an account of an early stage of Jacinta Tan’s work with Tony Hope and Anne Stewart combining empirical and conceptual methods in research on the values of stakeholders (patients, their families and clinicians) in the management of anorexia nervosa. This work was subsequently published as:

Tan, J.O.A., Hope, T. and Stewart, A. (2003) Anorexia nervosa and personal identity: The accounts of patients and their parents. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 26:533-548.

The British psychiatrist and philosopher Ilina Singh has shown the power of including children and young people’ voices in their own right for research on values

Singh, I. (2012) VOICES Study: Final Report. London, UK

ADHD Voices On Identity, Childhood, Ethics and Stimulants at